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TELEVISION, THIS IS “DIRECT CONNECTION” WITH JEFF SALKIN.>>Jeff: Good evening.
Welcome to your “Direct Connection”.”
Tonight we connect you with the 50th anniversary Apollo 11.
50 years tonight, the Saturn 5 rocket was poiseed for launch
Kennedy space. A new film from the American
experience which airs at 8:00 p.m. tomorrow on MPT sets
stage>>We realize that this is the beginning of the most
audacious undertaking that man has ever attempted.>>Extraordinary.
going to the moon. was an amazing thing.
TheQuestion was whether this would
represent a cosmic quest that kind is going pursue as a
destiny.>>Some of us think that the
tremendous interest in space travel is a sense a search for
another Eden, that has a kind of guilt about the world in
which he lives, and that he has despoiled the place he is
and that perhaps he ought now in his maturity to set out to find
place a place which man could to, leaving behind the
rusty cage in which his mis mistakes have held him. ♪♪ . .
♪♪>>I was stand near the giant
windows in the launch control center right alongside one on
the ground and the other people who were responsible for it.>>Ignition sequence.
76 five, four three, two, one, zero.>>Jeff: American
experience episode airs tomorrow .
Joining us now take your about the Apollo 11
mission future of the man’s missions, Dr. James
Garvin, chief scientist NASA’s Goddard space flight.
Dr. Garvin thanks for being. I was Meads amazed by this as a
little kid 50 years ago and I’m amazed by now.
did do that with the of the time in
terms of materials, power, and so forth?
>>Dr. James Garvin: Jeff, it was really more than project.
It was a state of mind. The Apollo project has a of
human engineering engineering, and curiosity-
curiosity-drivenation that carried ourselves people
from planet to another, and to think that we did 50 years ago
in a way that gave us the hope to do
everything that we have achieved since then in space is really to
the magic of Apollo.>>Jeff: And now, of course, we
it work. They landed moon.
was hurt. But leading up to that, of
course, there had been in the Apollo test
missions. Nobody had ever landed anything
on another planetary body. there was a great deal of
tension.>>Dr. James Garvin: .
to invent it all from scratch.
And imagine the centuries and decades it took for the greaty
ocean Mariners of the to learn to,
and in less than a decade we invented systems to carry
people, machines, precision navigation, telecommunications,,
everything moon to explore a place that we
really didn’t know as well as thought, and so that sense of
discovery is still with us today 50 years Apollo.
It still gets me excited to think of what we have to learn
and what we did learn.>>Jeff: Well, we’ll back
to what we did learn, but focus and pick up on that and
talk a little about what’s next. What is the next big target from
— NASA in terms man manned space flight?
>>Dr. James Garvin: Well, we’re going, and it’s a great
time to think that in 50 years we’ve learn the great
things, to build a reusable space, to build the
international space station with amazing payments are experiments
to develop the ex tech niques where people can live in
sapphires year, to fix the Hubble space telescope so many
times. we look back at moon
with a new light. our brin to wherever we
want to go. And with this big gesturing
universe staring at that we see through the eyes of
telescope, our insurer step, our step back to deep space where no
person that is planet earth has been in almost 50 years
Apollo 17. So the is the new frontier,
not the final but the next frontier for people, women
and men this time, going together to learn to go beyond.
the moon is that great destination that we’re now
hungering for.>>Jeff: Let me remind
viewers if you have a about Apollo in the past or the
future of space flight in the future, give a call.
have the phone number up on the screen.
You can email us a question.
email address is [email protected]
Garvin, let me pick on what you were about being the
next. mean, been there, done that,
rightWhy do we need back?>>Dr. James Garvin: Well, first
first, Jeff, let’s take a look for a minute.
The moon is a planetary would be a land area the size of Africa.
that’s a pretty big amount to me.
We touched it times with the brilliant Apollo voyages.
We’ve mapped it with missions like our lunar reconnaissance
where we can now imagine the moon as a Google moon kind of.
We didn’t have that in the late ’60s.
We now know from 50 years of studying moon rocks, though from
moon, that the moon is a record book of the
early time of our entire solar systems, programs a
stone to figure how those other worlds that we’re hunger
hungering to go on work. And it separates us earth
on a way we cannot see from earth.
Now is the time to go. we have if you will anew
space business model. The moon more than a
frontier for engineering science technology and
inspiration. There are potential business.
There are potential resources p there are realization scenarios
that brings all there. And so it’s the rate place at
the right time. It’s kind of our natural space
station, and so much to learn from a place that big.
Remember,, the moon has extremes that
would dazzle anyone, from the cold permanently shadowed areas
at the poles which are colder than Pluto to the hot sunlit
full moon that we on a full moon directly.
extreme temperatures that really give our engineers the
challenges that they really on so well.
I see noon the right place at the right time.
>>Jeff: take a phone call from Dorchester county.
Bob. , for the.
Go ahead.>>Yeah, I got a question
and then hang and up listen to the response.
Since the earth is to be a pretty crowded place, I wonder
how soon the doctor thins try to colonize the.
very much.>>Jeff: for the phone
>>Dr. James Garvin: So going to the with people, with women
women, men, robots to them the
is our plan. ization is something
different. It’s bigger than just opening a
frontier. so that’s a decision that’s
beyond the term. How we use the for all
people in all the ways, not something that we can say
for sure right now. We can say we want to go
wouldn’t to put women and men there, we to learn to live
off the land wouldn’t to read its secrets, we to use its
infrastructure to be the springboard to help us
about other places we might want .
Those could include Mars. And so colonization, that’s a
step beyond. didn’t Connell iceize new
world, so to speak, in the renaissance era right off the
bat. first visited to get to know
it, and that’s what doing with the.
>>Jeff: Apollo 11 mugs returned and the the Apollo
Sears missions, Goddard actually wound up with some of
the space rocks. You have a moon rock that
actually didn’t come in way way.
there are certain samples from the moon that were sealed
up and haven’t been examined since then.
more can be learn from?>>So wouldn’t to the moon and
we returned 385 kill oh grams of stuff.
800 pounders so. That’s a lot of gear terms
rocks and soils and drive. In the ’60s and the early ’70,
laboratories at Johnson space center in Texas here add
Goddard, at major universities the world studied them
with the technologies of 60s. we’re at in 21st.
look rocks now at a billionth of a meter to see
what’s in them without even cutting them open.
We can measure the history of a rock and figure when was
made at scales that were — that are unbelievable today that
weren’t even imagined then. here and around the
world now are up some of the treasure trove of Apollo
that protected like artifacts over decades so weak
take new techniques to ask new questions.
to the, the squish stuff on the moon, the
volatiles? What would do on the
moon if it thereCould it have been?
How would that have worked? What is the story of the water
on the moon, the lunar water cycle?
Those questions were ones we don’t address with the first
foray of exploreation. Now we have the tools.
here at Goddard and around the world opening
their eyes to the new moon, and it’s going to come.
>>Jeff: from Montgomery county p this is Richard.
, thanks for the call. ahead.
>>Hi. been reading a book about
naturally Armstrong. watched the
stories lately it. Seems like that we, the United
States, and some other countries signed a treaty like 50 years
ago that said that we would not claim the moon as a colony or as
our space or, or,. Is that still in effect and is
that still the right to do do, et cetera?
>>Jeff: Thanks very much guess that comes into if
there’s going to be some permanent base.
>>Dr. James Garvin: So the idea ideas from the late ’60s into
the ’70s, when people first went, were to leave the moon in
a way similar to the way we sort of administrator Antarctica, as
for exploreation, to live and work space, not as I
place to be owned by national nationallalities.
as a colonial land mass. So the moon is really there
all of us here on planet. And those treatise, those made
in the late ’60s ’60s, early ’70s, they stand
today. Now new business models
emergeing, commercial interests, things may change, and space law
and other to our moon, as big as it is, apply
apply. But right now moon is still
that for humanity to study, to from, learn
to, to learn to live on as make those next.
And the step is the is women and ’em men back
to place in a way safe smart and.
>>Jeff: a tougher sale to convince the American public
which are going to behind you in terms of if
nothing else, that moon is the right place to go when Mars
is the un territory? know the moon largely
uncharted, but is the science more compelling and the politics
and the public support more compelling to aim for Mars?
>>Dr. James Garvin: first, fund our space
exploration, and so really people’s choice.
the capabilities with our engineers, with our
astronauts to get back to the moon in the near term, to
to use it as a test bed figuring out how Mars or a
place Mars in the the way we’d like to, live the
land, explore, to ask those tough questions are we alone.
The ground sorts with plenty of science across
all the domains. history sun, record of
earth, collisions, how planets assembled themselves what
happens in deep space. All that’s on the moon.
It’s record in lunar records. Some of the those things
actually are not record on the earth and Mars because our
planet and Mars have a rich client history, a history of
water in ways that obliterate and change those records.
So the moon is a good place to calibrate ourselves and learn
from. Yes, always the question
of, have we been, done that?
But six visits for few days each does not execute a, a
sustainable presence, and so the moon offers
us a presence to learn how to do that.
As we leap forward to Mars with robotic assets, we have plans to
land a new rover on Mars that will set in motion biggest
robotic mission that is been talked about for the last 40 to
50 years, running samples Mars to earth as really — returning
samples of mass to earth finding out how work
or not. while we rocketcly
Mars and really have brilliantly for the last 20 years we really
get people back to the moon, to learn use the moon in a new
model. The Mars is still a science
frontier.>>Now a wall K if you will
Howard County. This is win.
Thank you for calling. Go ahead.
>> taking the call call.
Good afternoon. My question is because the moon,
if I’m correct, does not on its axis, the dark side
of the moon, the dark side of the moon has been exposed to
the since Rays, any plan to explore that see if
the geology significantly different from the side that
receives that since Rays? Thanks for the phone call and
I think the may have a construction for you.
>>Dr. James Garvin: moon does not have a dark side or a
light side. has a rotation that’s locked
to the earth. So one side of the to the earth.
other side that we don’t see from earth from our, land
masses our islands, sees the sun, and
the moon has a full lunar day/ day/night cycle just earth. a defender kint one of
because earth has been locked nether this spin lob
rotation over 300 million. It’s parent-body natural.
the far of the moon has been explored with the orbiter,
Japan ab cuingya, missions have explored happen
the Chinese space station agency has a rover on that far of
the moon exploring rocketcly. So it’s — robot robot.
So it’s a side of the moon that we see but it’s still
part of that beautiful that we’re exploring and it’s
magical. What we see there is a history
busket geological evolution world.
It’s really a beautiful thing.>>Jeff: a multi-part e
email question four from viewers who identify themselves
being age seven and age 33. Does living on the moon have the
same risk to human habitation as Scott Kelly experienceed on the
space station? we have in you theories as to
what’s center of the moon moon?
And lastly, can create artificial atmosphere there?>>Dr. James Garvin: So great
across that age span of questions are.
, thanks to robotic missions measurements made a pol
so we a pretty good idea of what’s
inside the 1 the immune lunar core, the structure of the
moon from inside outs have been measured using techniques what
we call geofiction, a means grail sound in the crust
to see what’s down there. So we have a 3D view.
It’s a beautiful planet how it assembled injuries, we have
theories about that. Living on moon different than
on the space station. You have to bring all of your
technology to yourself alive nah world with large of
temperature with space radiation from the big
bang, solar protons from the sun sun.
living in a space berth requirement weather environment
which we’re partly protected from our.
And lastly, making an on the moon is going to be
tough. moon is too small to retain
those big gash envelopes, our atmosphere orth, on Mars,
Venus and so it’s difficult to retain something big enough for
us to on. going to have bring
our air and water, learn to live off the moon to get some
of it from the moon. But we’ll not be makeing
a lunar atmosphere look the beautiful liveable atmosphere we
have on earth. that’s an interesting.
I think our, our technologies are ready to on.
We bring technology to go to the deep ocean.
We bring our technology to the. do it for the moon.
>>Jeff: take a call from Howard County.
per. per, thanks for the call.
Go ahead.>>My question regarding
steroids asteroids and the mining of precious maintenance
and minerals off. economically feastible and
do you actually truly think there are enough precious metals
and materials make it beneficial to us
And can we actually do that?>>Jeff: Good.
Thank you very much.>>Dr. James Garvin: the
is really a body in its own right resources that are
like one grade we would mine on earth, some of the moon
rocks, some of them contain vast concentrations of iron titanium
oxides that could be mineed. Some asteroids even more metal
metallic. A mission known as psyche led by
windy Wilkins tanner was recently selected that will
visit the biggest class M asteroid called psyche and that
mission will to start to address those
questions that you rightfully ask, could we live the
metals and the resources of space that I 1-800-that would
less load on earth. And one way to learn about to go
to those as its steroids, and they’re pretty mar
Fey, and to go to the moon and see what the moon where literal
are ore Boyds in rocks that are the ordinary
places that take Mack rocks. We have plongd approach
to so we can live off this beautiful solar system we live
in, and that’s what explore. It opens eyes to what we can and
then we ask economics, is the business
there. And the new space age
we’re in. We’re thinking what’s the model,
not just go explore, and what I
think is going to do well for all of us planet earth.
>>Jeff: Jim from Anne Arundel county.
Thank you for. ahead.
>>Hi. I’d like to find what will
protect humans once we leave the earth’s magnetic field and
out in space. I’m worried about the effects of
radiation.>>Jeff: very much.
>>Dr. James Garvin: we have a — we have teams colleagues
across NASA in space medicine who have been tangle that
literally for decades understanding how we can shield
ourselves from those ravages of space raid race, from the
galactic cosmic radiation, the protons,VI ionizeing radiation,
and there’s a varieties of tech Meeks and some are
going to more effective than. practicing little pieces
of those strategies on the international space station
where when solar stoms come, radiation increases and need
to protected. moon we’re going to need
to tether live in times of storms and other things
under the ground perhaps in these lava tubes that are like
live caves or to bring shield materials that can
keeps safe in safe havens when events that are above a
level of what shall I say? — of danger.
This is one of the big things about space.
We’re going to be living with space weather and space
radiation that we don’t have with here on the surface of
earth where our beautiful geo geomagnetic field us.
that’s a question. is not as hospitable as it
looks on science. We have to bring tools to
live there with us.>>Jeff: , to you
the most interesting, intriguing places in the?
mean, imagine it’s 50 years from now, and the moon has been
conquered, colonized maybe, and we can go anywhere.
Where would you go first? Would it be Mars?
be the moon of Saturn Jupiter or somewhere else?
>>Dr. James Garvin: Jeff, I think I answer that
question as a scientist this way way, and it’s not the way
everyone would answer. First, I think need to learn
to survive as people, as people in off this planet
mace like the moon, and that’s lot of us are really
passionate about going back. the maces we could go, many
of them are connected to this argument about worlds.
The places we could go. Mars may have been, may stable
frozen, and that offers great prospects for
resources, for life- capacity, for records for
climate records. It’s juts phenomenal.
as far as one place. I have — just a person
penchant for getting not so much people but getting robots back
to Venus because Venus is kind of like our sister we never
got to know. Venus is Hydeing a story that
we’re — hideing a story that we’re missing and if we get to
know Venus, we’re going to know how big planets worth beyond our
solar system, and others things we’ll to see with our next
great wave of. bullish on Mars.
I’d like to see the women on Mars.
the ocean worldsnd job I think targets for the
grand robots. The uroShan ocean.
Even the oceans that could be sequestered on places like Pluto
Pluto. ocean worlds, we’ve got to go
go.>>Jeff: how do you think
about the choice between man missions and?
The robots they don’t breathe, they don’t eat, they
don’t even necessarily have to come home.
But there’s certain things men and women as exploreers can do
you think about April landing on the moon and last-
last-minute human adjustments that robots maybe can’t.
>>Dr. James Garvin: , to me me, and I’m one NASA guy the
only place I ever so I’m guilty, but there’s a
place both. need our women men in
space to extend our presence. One famous astronaut once told
me, single planet species in the long run may not.
it’s in our DNA and cost muck directive to go beyond
where this beautiful spaceship earth is.
However, the Roberts are our forerunner explores we can use
them to go where we don’t need yet to explore, to open
those domains, those frontiers fours.
They’ve gone to the. us the the good stuff.
They’re telling us and they’re calling us to go.
They are showing us Mars in ways as we’re there.
see immersive virtual reality taking us anywhere we
want to go some day limited only by spates telecommunications, I.
I.T. solutions and those kind of things as we go to the placed we
can go to the moon, Mars, some very unique
asteroids. don’t to go every
everywhere. Deponent go everywhere on earth.
so I think human space flight is vital, it’s delivered
us, it’s fixed Hubble, it’s built an international
laboratory in space, it’s conquered the moon.
to go.>>Jeff: lot of nostalgia for
time with excitement and accomplishments but a
lot of excitement, too, so we look forward to see
next. Jim Garvin is chief scientist at
NASA’s Goddard space center.
, thanks very much for your.>>Dr. James Garvin: .
>>Jeff: And thank you for joining us for “Direct
Connection”.” back Thursday with “Your
Money & Business”.” Have a good night.